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Jack Forbes, a former American Indian studies professor at the University



Please provide documentation for your claims that "In 1849 and 1850 the State of California paid out of 1 million dollars for the killing of Native people. (At an average of $5 per head and .25 per scalp.) And this was man, woman or child." Before I teach this to students (or post to my Facebook account), I want a primary source to verify it. I did a search for "scalp" in the article you linked to, and there is nothing there to prove your point. I think it may be true, but I want a primary source to prove i

Frank Tuttle (b.1957) holds a Bachelor’s of Fine Arts degree from California State University, Humboldt (now Humboldt University). A Native Californian, Tuttle has devoted much of his life to his family and acquiring traditional manufacturing techniques of his people that have been rarely used or forgotten. As a modern painter, he is continually searching for new ways to express his understanding the power of the Creation. Tuttle experiments with imagery and materials to further explore the meanings of tr

As noted earlier, for many years the dominant scientific hypothesis concerning the origins of the Native Americans centered on the idea that a single population of so-called "" people entered North America from the Asian continent across the (a broad strip of land between what now is Alaska and Siberia , but long since submerged) sometime towards the end of the last Ice Age, around 12,000 - 13,000 years ago. Although there was no skeletal data to support the hypothesis that the earliest migrants into the A

The final chapter is a brief survey of American Indian and Inuit visits to Europe after 1492. Forbes emphasizes the large number of indigenous people who were taken to Europe as slaves in the wake of the Columbian voyages. The number of indigenous Caribbean slaves forcibly brought to Spain was so substantial that they may have had a genetic impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula. After the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in 1500, a large number of Brazilian Indians also ended up as enforced labore

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