in process …


Something bad happened. You should try to fix …


The action is completed.

Hot Springs

Hot tags


Most of the estimated premature deaths attributed to smoke



Understanding the determinants of premature mortality has important implications for public health policy. Research over the last 20 years has shown that preventable factors—factors amenable to change—could account for 40 percent or more of premature deaths (; ; ). However, new research studies can add to this body of work to reflect more recent mortality and risk factor data. Providing further impetus examining current studies in this area are recent international comparisons showing that t

Annualized rate of change in U.S. smoking prevalence, by county, 1996-2012. SOURCE: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2014).

I agree diesel exhaust is terrible but your saying modern automobile exhaust is harmless? Give me a break.

[a] Life expectancy values used in the PVLE vary by age person has lived until (in 5 year increments); these are for those

PVLE estimates were higher for certain subpopulations, such as men, younger people, and people in developed countries. In the case study, productivity cost estimates from our model showed that productivity loss was a substantial share of the total cost burden of premature mortality due to smoking, accounting for over 75 % of total lifetime costs in the United and 67 % of total lifetime costs in Brazil. Productivity costs were much lower using the friction cost approach among those of working age.

Related links


premature mortality costs productivity cost